Thursday, April 26, 2012

Kwashiorkor (Fukenas)

Kwashiorkor is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. It suffers mainly the children under five years of age. The children lack enough protein after stopping breastfeeding as a result of next birth. Then, they will be malnourished in the lack of breast milk because breast milk contains enough and high quality protein. The patients are suffered from loss of appetite, swelling and diarrhea.

Symptoms of Kwashiorkor
  • Swelling (oedema) of body due to retention of water. It starts from feet to head. But the skin of hip and legs are wrinkled.
  • Retardation of physical growth and underweight.
  • Skin cracks, descaling and wound.
  • Different skin color. In some places, it is dark whereas in some place, it is light.
Prevention of Marasmus and Kwashiorker
  • Increase community awareness on nutrition. Identify the patients and  support for the treatment of them.
  • Support for the treatment of them.
  • In order to increase protein in the body, provide the food like milk, fish, meat, egg, beans (soyabean, gram, pea etc.) which are rich in protein.
  • Physical check up and measurement of height and weight regularly.
  • Provide nutrition and healthy education to parents.
  • Provide local food and seasonal fruits instead of expensive instant food with low nutritive value.
  • Manage treatment if the children are suffering from other infection disease.

Marasmus (Sukenas)

Marasmus is a protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). It causes children lean and thin because of the lack of enough food and essential nutrients (both carbohydrates and protein) for a long time. This disease mainly suffers the children. The skin of children wrinkles due to the loss of fat. Average weight of children becomes 60 percent less than other healthy children of similar age.

Symptoms of Marasmus
  • Getting lean and thin
  • Faces wrinkle like old person
  • Low weight for age (underweight)
  • Regular reduction in fat and muscle
  • Suffering from diarrhea
  • Not interested on food despite the hunger.


Rickets is caused mainly in the children of the age of two or four. This disease is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D. In the absence of vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphorus are not absorbed well in the body. Because of the absence of calcium, phosphorus etc. the growth of bone and teeth is obstructed. The bones become soft and weak. Unable to bear the weight of the body, the bones of the feet are crooked and bent. The following are visible symptoms of the disease rickets.

Symptoms of rickets
  • Bones of the legs seem crooked and bent.
  • The wrists and ankles are swollen and enlarged.
  • The physical growth of the children is very slow.
  • There is deformity in the ribs.
  • The head seems enlarged and flattened.
  • The stomach seems swollen and looks like pot-belly.
Preventive Measures
We must have a daily diet containing vitamin D. Foodstuff containing vitamin D are the yellow part of the eggs, oil of the fish, milk, butter etc. The children should be given foods containing calcium and phosphorus like green vegetables, liver, eggs etc.

Massaging the baby with the oil in the sum is a good system that is traditionally followed in our society. This is a good way of obtaining vitamin D from the rays of sun. On a sunny day, children should be allowed to play outside in the field. This helps to prevent the disease rickets. A baby suffering from rickets can easily be recognized. So, the baby should be immediately given the food containing vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus. Such food can prevent this disease.

Post-Hepatic Jaundice

Post-hepatic (or obstructive) jaundice, also called cholestasis, is caused by interruption to the drainage of bile in the biliary system. The most common causes are gallstones in the common bile duct, ductal careinoma, pancreatitis and pancreatic pseudo cysts. A rate causes of obstructive jaundice is Mirizzi's syndrome.

The complicators or the damages to the lever cause jaundice. A person suffering from it cannot sleep well, feels bored, dizzy and sometimes become unconscious in the extreme cases. This disease is mostly found in alcoholic people. Alcoholism enlarges the liver and makes it delicate. The soft liver may give in any time. People usually suffer from jaundice when they have complications of liver.

If the jaundice has been caused by the alcoholism, it is cured with the patient abstaining from alcohol. The extreme stage of this disease may kill the patient. The severity of the effects of alcoholism may differ from person to person. Therefore, this disease has been regarded as one of the most fatal diseases.

Causes and symptoms of Jaundice
The increase in the deposition of the substance called Bilirubin in blood causes jaundice. Its patients have yellow eyes and skins. The urine also seems very yellow.

Hepatitis A virus causes jaundice. These viruses are transferred from excreta of the patient suffering from jaundice. Patients loses appetite, feels nausea and has fever. After four to seven days, the skin and the eyes start turning pale. During this period, the liver becomes large and soft. This stage remains for two to six weeks and it takes many months to completely recover.

Sometimes, liver is damaged very badly and the patient dies within ten days. Such damage is seen in people who came in regular contact with its victims without any immunity. Therefore, this disease should be prevented from being transferred from one person to another. The next  microbe that causes jaundice is Hepatitis B virus. They are transferred especially through blood transfusion. Another Jaundice causing microbe is yellow fever virus. It is the most dangerous virus. This virus has already been eradicated from the world.

Controlling Measures
The patients of jaundice should take enough rest. Special care should be taken in nutrition. The well ripen food should be given to the patient as they tend to vomit the unappetizing food. The person having jaundice should not take oily food because they cannot digest fats. Since the intestines of the patient lacks bile, they cannot digest fats and digest the food. Patient should be given plenty of carbohydrates to maintain energy. Milk and other nutritious foods should be given to the patient after they have felt a bit better.