Thursday, December 8, 2011


The causative agent of cholera disease is Vibrio Cholera. In the past, it was taken as epidemic disease as it swept away large number of people and it is quickly transmitted through one person to another. Food and water are the mode of transmission of this disease.

Symptoms of Cholera
The symptoms of cholera are:
  • water stool without abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • acute dehydration
  • thirsty feeling
  • very few or sometime stopping of urination
  • sunken eyes
  • low blood pressure
  • deep pulse


Dysentery is a disease caused by virus and bacteria. It is also transmitted with dirty behaviour. Mucus and blood is seen in the stool of a person suffered from this disease. Dysentery is of two types: Amoebic and Bacillary. Both types of dysentery are transmitted through faeco-oral route.

Amoebic Dysentery:
It is caused by Entamoeba Histolytica.

Symptoms of Amoebic Dysentery:
  • Abdominal pain may be felt.
  • Frequent desire to fecal discharge.
  • White mucus is seen in stool.
  • Patient becomes very weak.
Bacillary Dysentery:
Bacillary Dysentery is caused by Shigella Shiga and Salmonella. It is also called Ragatmasi in Nepali.

Symptoms of Bacillary Dysentery:
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Frequent passing stool.
  • Mucus with blood is seen.
  • Frequent thirst and drying lip due to loss of liquid substance.
  • Fever.

Saturday, December 3, 2011


Occurrence of watery stool more than 3-4 times in a day is called diarrhea. Though people of every ages may be suffered from it, it mainly suffers children. It is not caused by single agent. Various agents bacteria like Gartner Bacillus, E. coli etc. can cause it.They enter into our stomach through faeco-oral route with dirty water, fly infested food and hand.

Symptoms of Diarrhea
When we suffer from this disease following symptoms can be seen.
  • Abdominal pain and watery stool more than 3-4 times per day.
  • Dehydration due to loss of water from body.
Following symptoms of a dehydration in diarrhea can be seen:
  • Dryness in mouth and frequent thirst.
  • Sunken eyes.
  • Wrinkled skin.
  • Muscles of hand and leg become very weak and start to cramp.
  • Sunken head in neo-natal baby.


Roundworm is also called as Ascaris Lumricoides. Therefore, it is called as Ascariasis. Dirty behavior is the main cause of its transmission. The eggs enter into human stomach through faeco-oral routes. A matured female roundworm can lay more than 200 thousands of eggs per day in human stomach. Those eggs come outside through stool. They enter into our body through dirty water, food and hand. After crossing various stages in its lifecycle, a matured round  worm starts to suffer us.

Symptoms of Roundworm
The symptoms of roundworm are as:
  • Abdominal pain and indigestion.
  • Abdominal flatulence.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Vomiting and sometimes appearance of roundworm in the vomit.
  • General physical weakness.
  • Irritation around anus.
  • Malnutrition is caused due to loss of appetite, indigestion and frequent passing of stool.

Common Cold

Common cold is easily and highly communicable disease as it rapidly transmits from one person to another. Therefore, almost everybody is affected by it in Nepal. It is caused by filterable virus. It affects nose, throat, chest and many other parts of our body. When the patient sneezes or coughs, the viruses are spread in the air through the droplets. When we inhale the contaminated air, we are infected by it. Similarly, the infested utensils, handkerchiefs, etc. are the mode of its transmission.

Symptoms of Common Cold:
The symptoms of common cold are;
  • At first, irritation in nose and throat.
  • Nose and neck dry and patient slightly coughs.
  • Then watery nasal discharge.
  • Nose is closed, smelling capacity is lost and voice becomes hoarse.
  • Sometimes, headache and fever.
  • Eyes become wet.
Preventive measures of Common Cold:
The preventive measures of common cold are:
  • Avoid common use of handkerchief, towel and utensils used by the patient.
  • If impossible, use them by washing well with soap.
  • Clothe according to weather, such as warm cloth in cold season.
  • Patient should use handkerchief to sneeze or cough.
  • Regularly eat green vegetables.
  • Patient should take enough liquid matter and take rest.
  • Take hot water-vapour and rest as a remedy but there is no medicine to treat it.